ELISA- Definition, Principle, Procedure, Types, Steps, Uses


ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is a modern molecular technique that can detect the interaction between an antigen and an antibody with the help of an enzyme. An antigen is a foreign substance that can trigger an immune response in the body, and an antibody is a protein that can bind to a specific antigen and neutralize it. The enzyme acts as a marker that can produce a color change when it reacts with a substrate.

ELISA is based on the principle of immunology, which is the study of how the immune system recognizes and responds to foreign invaders. ELISA can measure the amount of antigen or antibody present in a sample, such as blood, serum, saliva, urine, etc. ELISA can also identify the type of antigen or antibody present in a sample by using specific antibodies or antigens that can recognize them.

ELISA has many applications in various fields of science and medicine, such as diagnosis of diseases, detection of allergens, estimation of hormones, monitoring of vaccines, etc. ELISA is a simple, fast, accurate, and cost-effective method that can provide qualitative and quantitative results. ELISA can also be performed in different formats, such as direct ELISA, indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA, and competitive ELISA. Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages depending on the purpose and design of the experiment.

In this article, we will discuss the definition, principle, procedure, types, steps, uses, advantages, and limitations of ELISA in detail. We will also provide some examples and illustrations to help you understand this technique better. By the end of this article, you will have a comprehensive overview of ELISA and its applications in various fields. 😊