Analytical Balance- Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Examples


An analytical balance is a laboratory instrument that can measure very small masses with high accuracy and precision. It is commonly used in quantitative chemical analysis, where the mass of a sample or a substance is an important parameter. An analytical balance can have a readability as low as 0.01 mg, which means it can detect changes in mass as small as 0.01 milligram.

An analytical balance has a transparent enclosure, also called a draft shield or a weighing chamber, that protects the samples from dust and air currents that could affect the measurement . The weighing chamber has doors that allow access to the weighing pan, where the sample or the container is placed. The weighing pan is connected to an electromagnet that generates a force to balance the mass of the sample. The force required is measured by an electronic sensor and displayed on a digital screen.

There are different types of analytical balances, such as electronic, mechanical, and electro-optical balances. They differ in their design, mechanism, and features, but they all share the same principle of measuring mass by balancing forces. Analytical balances require careful calibration, leveling, and cleaning to ensure accurate and reliable results. They also need to be used in a suitable environment that is free from vibrations, temperature changes, magnetic fields, and chemical reactions.

Analytical balances are essential tools for many scientific disciplines and applications. They can be used to determine the density, purity, composition, molecular weight, and stoichiometry of substances. They can also be used for sample preparation, pipette calibration, differential weighing, piece counting, interval weighing, formulation, percent weighing, filling, gross-net tare weighing, checkweighing, and animal weighing. Analytical balances are widely available in various models and specifications from different manufacturers.