Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples


Type II hypersensitivity reactions are also known as cytotoxic or antibody-mediated reactions. They involve the binding of antibodies to antigens on the surface of cells or tissues, leading to their destruction or dysfunction. The antibodies involved are usually of the IgG or IgM class, and they can activate the complement system or recruit other immune cells to cause damage. Type II hypersensitivity reactions can occur in various clinical settings, such as transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the newborn, autoimmune diseases, and drug-induced hemolytic anemia. In this article, we will explain the mechanism and examples of type II hypersensitivity reactions in detail.