Recombinant DNA Technology- Definition, Steps, Applications


Recombinant DNA technology is a method of joining together DNA molecules from two or more different species. The recombined DNA molecule is inserted into a host organism, such as a bacterial or yeast cell, to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. This technology allows scientists to isolate, amplify, manipulate, and study-specific genes or DNA sequences of interest. It can also be used to compare different organisms, determine gene function, study mutations, and modify cell types. Recombinant DNA technology is based on the use of enzymes that can cut and join DNA molecules, such as restriction endonucleases and ligases.

Recombinant DNA technology involves procedures for analyzing or combining DNA fragments from one or several organisms (Figure 1), including the introduction of the rDNA molecule into a cell for its replication or integration into the genome of the target cell.

Recombinant DNA technology has been successfully applied to make important proteins used in the treatment of human diseases, such as insulin and growth hormone. It has also been used to create transgenic organisms that have enhanced traits, such as pest resistance, drought tolerance, or improved nutrition. Furthermore, recombinant DNA technology has enabled the development of new tools for diagnosis, gene therapy, and genome editing.

In this article, we will discuss the steps of recombinant DNA technology in detail and explore some of its applications and limitations.