Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary


Proteins are the most abundant and versatile biomolecules in living organisms. They perform a wide range of functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting molecules, providing structural support, regulating gene expression, and defending against pathogens. Proteins are made of smaller units called amino acids, which are linked together by peptide bonds to form long chains called polypeptides. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide determines the unique identity and function of a protein.

However, the sequence alone is not enough to explain how proteins work. Proteins also need to fold into specific shapes to perform their functions. The shape of a protein is determined by its structure, which can be described at four different levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Each level of structure reveals more information about the properties and interactions of a protein. In this article, we will explore each level of protein structure in detail and see how they relate to each other and to the function of proteins.