Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestation of Gardenerella vaginalis


Gardenerella vaginalis is a gram-variable bacterium that is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora and a malodorous discharge. BV affects millions of women worldwide and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, preterm birth, and other adverse outcomes. The pathogenesis of G. vaginalis is complex and involves multiple factors that enable the bacterium to adhere to the host epithelium, produce cytotoxic substances, form biofilms, and alter the vaginal environment. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the mechanisms of infection by G. vaginalis and its clinical manifestations.