Neutralization Test- Definition, Principle, Types, Procedure, Results


Neutralization is a process of reducing or eliminating the biological effects of a substance by another substance that specifically binds to it. Neutralization can occur between toxins and antitoxins, or between viruses and antibodies. The substance that causes the biological effects is called the antigen, and the substance that neutralizes it is called the antibody.

The principle of neutralization is based on the concept of antigen-antibody interaction. Antigens are molecules that can elicit an immune response in the body, such as foreign proteins, polysaccharides, or nucleic acids. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that can recognize and bind to specific antigens. When an antibody binds to an antigen, it can block its activity or mark it for destruction by other immune cells.

Neutralization tests are laboratory methods that use antibodies to detect or measure the presence or activity of antigens. Neutralization tests can be used for various purposes, such as identifying pathogens, diagnosing infections, evaluating immunity, or testing vaccines. Neutralization tests can be classified into two main types: virus neutralization test and toxin neutralization test. These tests differ in the type of antigen and antibody used, as well as the biological effects that are measured or inhibited. In this article, we will discuss these two types of neutralization tests in detail.