Microbial spoilage of egg and egg products

Eggs are a highly nutritious food that contains proteins, minerals, fats, iron, phosphorus vitamins (A, B, D, E, and K). They are also a source of choline, lutein, zeaxanthin, and selenium, which have various health benefits for the brain, eyes, heart, and immune system.

Eggs are a versatile and affordable food that can be prepared in many ways and used in various dishes. They are also a good source of energy, as they provide about 62.5 calories per medium egg.

The most common type of egg consumed by humans is the chicken egg. However, other types of eggs such as duck, quail, goose, and turkey eggs are also edible and have similar nutritional profiles.

The chicken egg consists of three main parts: the yolk, the albumen (or white), and the shell. Each part has different nutrients and functions.

  • The yolk is the yellow part of the egg that contains about 50% of the protein and most of the fat and cholesterol. It also has lipoproteins, lipovitellins, lipovitellinin, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, iron, phosphorus, and choline.
  • The albumen is the clear part of the egg that surrounds the yolk. It contains about 12% of the protein and most of the water. It also has ovalbumin, conalbumin, avidin, ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, ovomucin, lysozyme, riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), biotin (vitamin B7), folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B12, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc.
  • The shell is the hard outer layer of the egg that protects the contents from external contamination. It is made mostly of calcium carbonate on an organic matrix. It has pores that allow gas exchange between the egg and the environment. It also has two shell membranes that act as barriers against bacteria and other microorganisms.

The nutritional value of eggs can vary depending on factors such as the size of the egg, the breed of the hen, the feed of the hen, and the method of cooking. However, in general, eggs are considered a complete protein source that provides all nine essential amino acids that humans cannot synthesize.

Eggs can be part of a balanced diet that supports various aspects of health. However, some people may need to limit their intake of eggs or egg yolks due to medical conditions such as high cholesterol or diabetes. Therefore, it is advisable to consult a doctor or a nutritionist before making any changes to one`s diet.