Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Uses


Immunoelectrophoresis is a technique that combines electrophoresis and immunodiffusion to separate and identify proteins based on their antigenic properties. Electrophoresis is the process of applying an electric field to a gel containing a mixture of proteins, which causes them to migrate according to their charge and size. Immunodiffusion is the process of allowing antibodies to diffuse from a trough into the gel and form visible precipitates with their corresponding antigens.

The principle of immunoelectrophoresis is based on the fact that different proteins have different charges and molecular weights, and therefore move at different speeds and distances in an electric field. Moreover, each protein has a specific antigenic structure that can be recognized by a specific antibody. By using an antiserum that contains antibodies against the proteins of interest, immunoelectrophoresis can reveal the presence and identity of these proteins in a complex mixture.