Gas Chromatography- Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Uses


Gas chromatography (GC) is a powerful and widely used analytical technique for separating and identifying different components of a mixture based on their volatility and affinity for a stationary phase. GC can be used to analyze organic and inorganic compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition, such as gases, liquids, and low-molecular-weight solids. GC can also be used to prepare pure compounds from a complex mixture by collecting the fractions of interest as they elute from the column. GC involves injecting a small amount of sample, either in gaseous or liquid form, into a stream of carrier gas (usually an inert gas such as helium, nitrogen, or hydrogen) that flows through a column containing a stationary phase. The column is typically a narrow tube made of metal or glass that is coated or filled with a liquid or solid material that acts as the stationary phase. The column is usually enclosed in an oven where the temperature can be controlled.