Esbach Test- Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses


The Esbach test is a biochemical test that can detect and measure the amount of protein, especially albumin, in a urine sample. Albumin is a type of protein that is normally found in the blood but can leak into the urine due to various conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or infection. The presence and level of albumin in the urine can indicate the severity and progression of these conditions and help in diagnosis and treatment.

The Esbach test was developed by Georges Hubert Esbach, a German physician and chemist, in 1874. It is one of the oldest and simplest methods of protein estimation in urine. The test involves mixing a urine sample with a reagent containing picric acid and citric acid. These acids react with the protein molecules in the urine and form a yellow precipitate. The amount of precipitate can be measured by using a special glass tube called an albuminometer, which has graduations that indicate the grams of albumin per 1000 ml of urine.

The Esbach test is also known as the picric acid test or the Esbach albuminometer test. It is a qualitative and quantitative test that can provide a quick and easy estimation of proteinuria (the presence of excess protein in the urine). However, it also has some limitations and sources of error that need to be considered. In this article, we will discuss the principle, procedure, result, uses, and limitations of the Esbach test in detail.