Biochemical Test of Klebsiella granulomatis


Klebsiella granulomatis is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes a chronic and progressive infection of the skin and mucous membranes called granuloma inguinale or donovanosis. This infection is characterized by the formation of painless, beefy-red ulcers that can bleed and spread to other areas of the body. The disease is mainly transmitted through sexual contact, but can also occur through non-sexual contact with infected tissues or fomites. Klebsiella granulomatis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially in Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia and Latin America. The incidence of the disease has declined in recent years due to improved hygiene and antibiotic therapy, but it remains a public health problem in some areas where access to diagnosis and treatment is limited.

Klebsiella granulomatis was first described in 1905 by Charles Donovan, who observed intracellular bacteria in tissue samples from patients with granuloma inguinale. The bacterium was initially classified as a member of the genus Calymmatobacterium, but later reclassified as Klebsiella based on its genetic and biochemical similarities with other Klebsiella species. However, Klebsiella granulomatis differs from other Klebsiella species in several aspects, such as its inability to grow on standard culture media, its unique morphology and antigenic properties, and its pathogenicity and virulence factors. Therefore, some researchers have proposed to assign Klebsiella granulomatis to a separate genus or species within the Klebsiella group.

The diagnosis of granuloma inguinale is based on the clinical presentation of the lesions and the detection of intracellular bacteria in tissue smears or biopsies stained with Wright-Giemsa or silver nitrate. The definitive identification of Klebsiella granulomatis requires molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA hybridization, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. The treatment of granuloma inguinale consists of prolonged courses of antibiotics such as azithromycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The prognosis of the disease depends on the extent and duration of the infection, the presence of complications such as secondary infections or malignancies, and the response to therapy. Prevention of granuloma inguinale requires education and awareness about the disease, promotion of safe sexual practices and condom use, and early detection and treatment of cases and contacts.